We should all know the basics of an x-ray, they are used to scan our bodies to see if we broke a bone. We may all know this is what an x-ray does but a lot of us don't know how an x-ray functions. An x-ray mainly functions with an electrode pair. This electrode pair is located inside a glass vacuum tube and the machine heats up a filament inside the electrode pair by passing a current through it. This will draw electrons throughout the glass vacuum tube. Since the voltage difference between the cathode and the anode inside the electrode pair is really high, the electrons fly through the tube and collide with tungsten atoms which will knock the electrons loose causing the electron to release energy as it falls to a lower energy level. This extra energy that is released comes out in a high energy level as an X-ray photon. An easier way to explain this is the gravitational pull of an atom. The nucleus will attract electrons and will change the course of the electron as it slows it down. Since there is a braking action here, there will be energy lost and this energy will make up the x-ray photon, which is the ray of the x-ray.
X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation. After the above process, the particles will pass the body and a computer or film will record the image that the x-rays find of our body. Dense materials like bones will block out the x-ray particles and will appear white on the x-ray and other material that contain air will appear black. Muscle, fat and fluids will appear gray.